


Parameters for torsion springs
Physical parameters d (wire diameter): This parameter describes the diameter of wire used as material for spring.
 Dd (Shaft): This parameter describes maximal diameter of spring shaft in industrial applications.Tolerance for this parameter is (+)2%(indicative).
 Di (internal diameter): Internal diameter of a spring. It can be calculated by subtracting the wire diameter multiplied by 2 from the external diameter of a spring. Internal diameter in torsion springs decreases while the spring is working even up to shaft diameter. Tolerance for this parameter is (+)2%(indicative).
 De (external diameter): External diameter of a spring. It can be calculated by adding the wire diameter multiplied by 2 to the internal diameter of a spring. External diameter in torsion springs decrease while the spring is working. Tolerance for this parameter is (+)2% with tolerance (+) 0.1 mm
 L0 (Free Length): WARNING: Free Length decrease while spring is working. Tolerance for this parameter is (+)2%(indicative).
 Ls (Leg Length): It is the distance from the center axis of the coil body to the end of the torsion springs' leg. Tolerance for this parameter is (+)2%(indicative).
 An (Maximum angle): Maximum acceptable rotation angle for the spring in degrees. Tolerance for this parameter is (+)15 degrees (indicative).
 Fn (Maximum force): Maximum acceptable force that can operate at the end of torsion springs' leg. Tolerance for this parameter is (+)15%(indicative).
 Mn (Maximum torque): Maximum acceptable torque (Newton * mm). Tolerance for this parameter is (+)15%(indicative).
 R (Spring rate): This parameter determines spring's resistance, while it is working. It is measured in Newton * mm / degree. Tolerance for this parameter is (+)15%(indicative).
 A1 & F1 & M1: (angle at torque or force) The following equation calculates the angle as a function of the torque: A1 = M1/R. In order to calculate the torque from the force, we use this equation: M = F*Ls
 Leg position There are 4 types of torsion springs' leg positions: 0, 90 ,180 or 270 degrees (see picture above).
 Helix direction: A righthandwound spring loads in a counterclockwise direction. A lefthandwound spring loads in a clockwise direction. Both types are available in all sizes.
 Reference Number: All springs are identified by a unique reference: type . (De * 10) . (d * 100) . (N * 100) . For righthandwound springs, the type is a letter "D". For lefthandwound springs, the type is a letter "G". "N" stands for the number of coils. Example: D.028.020.0350 is a righthandwound torsion spring with an external diameter of 2.8mm produced from 0.9mm stainless steel wire and having 3.5 coils.
Materials I (Inox steel): Inox 18/8 mark Z10 CN 18.09.
Tolerances Leg position: (+)15 degrees
 Leg Length: (+)3 %


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